AUTO mode is used run pre-defined waypoint missions on Copter, Plane and Rover.
DroneKit-Python provides basic methods to download and clear the current mission commands from the vehicle, to add and upload new mission commands, to count the number of waypoints, and to read and set the currently executed mission command. You can build upon these basic primitives to create high-level mission planning functionality.
We recommend that you use GUIDED mode instead of AUTO mode where possible, because it offers finer and more responsive control over movement, and can emulate most mission planning activities.
AUTO mode can be helpful if a command you need is not supported in GUIDED mode on a particular vehicle type.
There are three types of commands:
MAV_CMD_NAV_*) are used to control vehicle movement, including takeoff, moving to and around waypoints, changing altitude, and landing.
MAV_CMD_DO_*) are for auxiliary functions that do not affect the vehicle’s position (for example, setting the camera trigger distance, or setting a servo value).
MAV_CMD_NAV_*) are used to delay DO commands until some condition is met. For example
MAV_CMD_CONDITION_DISTANCEwill prevent DO commands executing until the vehicle reaches the specified distance from the waypoint.
During a mission at most one NAV command and one DO or CONDITION command can be running at the same time. CONDITION and DO commands are associated with the last NAV command that was sent: if the UAV reaches the waypoint before these commands are executed, the next NAV command is loaded and they will be skipped.
The MAVLink Mission Command Messages (MAV_CMD) wiki topic provides a more detailed overview of commands.
The mission commands for a vehicle are accessed using the
attribute. The attribute is of type
CommandSequence, a class that provides ‘array style’ indexed access to the
waypoints which make up the mission.
# Connect to the Vehicle (in this case a simulated vehicle at 127.0.0.1:14550) vehicle = connect('127.0.0.1:14550', wait_ready=True) # Download the vehicle waypoints (commands). Wait until download is complete. cmds = vehicle.commands cmds.download() cmds.wait_ready()
In DroneKit-Python 2
Vehicle.commands contains just the editable waypoints (in version 1.x, the
commands included the non-editable home location as the first item).
To clear a mission you call
clear() and then
Vehicle.commands.upload() (to upload the changes to the vehicle):
# Connect to the Vehicle (in this case a simulated vehicle at 127.0.0.1:14550) vehicle = connect('127.0.0.1:14550', wait_ready=True) # Get commands object from Vehicle. cmds = vehicle.commands # Call clear() on Vehicle.commands and upload the command to the vehicle. cmds.clear() cmds.upload()
If a mission that is underway is cleared, the mission will continue to the next waypoint. If you don’t add a new command before the waypoint is reached then the vehicle mode will change to RTL (return to launch) mode.
After downloading or clearing a mission new commands
can be added and uploaded to the vehicle. Commands are added to the mission using
and are sent to the vehicle (either individually or in batches) using
# Connect to the Vehicle (in this case a simulated vehicle at 127.0.0.1:14550) vehicle = connect('127.0.0.1:14550', wait_ready=True) # Get the set of commands from the vehicle cmds = vehicle.commands cmds.download() cmds.wait_ready() # Create and add commands cmd1=Command( 0, 0, 0, mavutil.mavlink.MAV_FRAME_GLOBAL_RELATIVE_ALT, mavutil.mavlink.MAV_CMD_NAV_TAKEOFF, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 10) cmd2=Command( 0, 0, 0, mavutil.mavlink.MAV_FRAME_GLOBAL_RELATIVE_ALT, mavutil.mavlink.MAV_CMD_NAV_WAYPOINT, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 10, 10, 10) cmds.add(cmd1) cmds.add(cmd2) cmds.upload() # Send commands
While you can add new commands after downloading a mission
it is not possible to directly modify and upload existing commands in
Vehicle.commands (you can modify the commands but
changes do not propagate to the vehicle).
Instead you copy all the commands into another container (e.g. a list),
modify them as needed, then clear
Vehicle.commands and upload the list as a new mission:
# Connect to the Vehicle (in this case a simulated vehicle at 127.0.0.1:14550) vehicle = connect('127.0.0.1:14550', wait_ready=True) # Get the set of commands from the vehicle cmds = vehicle.commands cmds.download() cmds.wait_ready() # Save the vehicle commands to a list missionlist= for cmd in cmds: missionlist.append(cmd) # Modify the mission as needed. For example, here we change the # first waypoint into a MAV_CMD_NAV_TAKEOFF command. missionlist.command=mavutil.mavlink.MAV_CMD_NAV_TAKEOFF # Clear the current mission (command is sent when we call upload()) cmds.clear() #Write the modified mission and flush to the vehicle for cmd in missionlist: cmds.add(cmd) cmds.upload()
The changes are not guaranteed to be complete until
upload() is called on the parent
To start a mission, change the mode to AUTO:
# Connect to the Vehicle (in this case a simulated vehicle at 127.0.0.1:14550) vehicle = connect('127.0.0.1:14550', wait_ready=True) # Set the vehicle into auto mode vehicle.mode = VehicleMode("AUTO")
If the vehicle is in the air, then changing the mode to AUTO is all that is required to start the mission.
Copter 3.3 release and later: If the vehicle is on the ground (only), you will additionally need to send the MAV_CMD_MISSION_START command.
You can stop/pause the current mission by switching out of AUTO mode (e.g. into GUIDED mode). If you switch back to AUTO mode the mission will either restart at the beginning or resume at the current waypoint - the behaviour depends on the value of the MIS_RESTART parameter (available on all vehicle types).
You can monitor the progress of the mission by polling the
to get the current command number. You can also change the current command by setting the attribute to the desired command number.
vehicle.commands.next=2 print "Current Waypoint: %s" % vehicle.commands.next vehicle.commands.next=4 print "Current Waypoint: %s" % vehicle.commands.next
There is no need to
upload() changes to send an update to the
next attribute to the vehicle
(and as with other attributes, if you fetch a value, it is updated from the vehicle).
At the end of the mission the vehicle will enter LOITER mode (hover in place for Copter, circle for Plane, stop for Rover). You can add new commands to the mission, but you will need to toggle from/back to AUTO mode to start it running again.
Currently there is no notification in DroneKit when a mission completes. If you need to detect mission end (in order to perform some other operation) then you can either:
Vehicle.commands.nextfor the transition to the final command, or
This example code contains a number of functions that might be useful for managing and monitoring missions:
upload_mission() uploads a mission from a file.
The implementation calls
readmission() (below) to import the mission from a file into a list. The method then
clears the existing mission and uploads the new version.
Adding mission commands is discussed here in the guide.
def upload_mission(aFileName): """ Upload a mission from a file. """ #Read mission from file missionlist = readmission(aFileName) print "\nUpload mission from a file: %s" % import_mission_filename #Clear existing mission from vehicle print ' Clear mission' cmds = vehicle.commands cmds.clear() #Add new mission to vehicle for command in missionlist: cmds.add(command) print ' Upload mission' vehicle.commands.upload()
readmission() reads a mission from the specified file and returns a list of
Each line is split up. The first line is used to test whether the file has the correct (stated) format.
For subsequent lines the values are stored in a
(the values are first cast to the correct
int types for their associated parameters).
The commands are added to a list which is returned by the function.
def readmission(aFileName): """ Load a mission from a file into a list. This function is used by upload_mission(). """ print "Reading mission from file: %s\n" % aFileName cmds = vehicle.commands missionlist= with open(aFileName) as f: for i, line in enumerate(f): if i==0: if not line.startswith('QGC WPL 110'): raise Exception('File is not supported WP version') else: linearray=line.split('\t') ln_index=int(linearray) ln_currentwp=int(linearray) ln_frame=int(linearray) ln_command=int(linearray) ln_param1=float(linearray) ln_param2=float(linearray) ln_param3=float(linearray) ln_param4=float(linearray) ln_param5=float(linearray) ln_param6=float(linearray) ln_param7=float(linearray) ln_autocontinue=int(linearray.strip()) cmd = Command( 0, 0, 0, ln_frame, ln_command, ln_currentwp, ln_autocontinue, ln_param1, ln_param2, ln_param3, ln_param4, ln_param5, ln_param6, ln_param7) missionlist.append(cmd) return missionlist
save_mission() saves the current mission to a file (in the Waypoint file format).
download_mission() (below) to get them mission, and then writes the list line-by-line to the file.
def save_mission(aFileName): """ Save a mission in the Waypoint file format (http://qgroundcontrol.org/mavlink/waypoint_protocol#waypoint_file_format). """ missionlist = download_mission() output='QGC WPL 110\n' for cmd in missionlist: commandline="%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\n" % (cmd.seq,cmd.current,cmd.frame,cmd.command,cmd.param1,cmd.param2,cmd.param3,cmd.param4,cmd.x,cmd.y,cmd.z,cmd.autocontinue) output+=commandline with open(aFileName, 'w') as file_: file_.write(output)
def download_mission(): """ Downloads the current mission and returns it in a list. It is used in save_mission() to get the file information to save. """ missionlist= cmds = vehicle.commands cmds.download() cmds.wait_ready() for cmd in cmds: missionlist.append(cmd) return missionlist
distance_to_current_waypoint() returns the distance (in metres) to the next waypoint:
def distance_to_current_waypoint(): """ Gets distance in metres to the current waypoint. It returns None for the first waypoint (Home location). """ nextwaypoint=vehicle.commands.next if nextwaypoint ==0: return None missionitem=vehicle.commands[nextwaypoint-1] #commands are zero indexed lat=missionitem.x lon=missionitem.y alt=missionitem.z targetWaypointLocation=LocationGlobalRelative(lat,lon,alt) distancetopoint = get_distance_metres(vehicle.location.global_frame, targetWaypointLocation) return distancetopoint
The function determines the current target waypoint number with
and uses it to index the commands to get the latitude, longitude and altitude of the target waypoint. The
(see Frame conversion functions) is then used to calculate and return the (horizontal) distance
from the current vehicle location.
This implementation is very basic. It assumes that the next command number is for a valid NAV command (it might not be) and that the lat/lon/alt values are non-zero. It is however a useful indicator for test code.